The lawS:

The Second Amendment of the United States:

A well regulated Militia, being necessary to the security of a free State, the right of the people to keep and bear Arms shall not be infringed.

Congressional Law:

Gun Free Zones Act 101st Congress Bill 2070, the text is very long, link goes directly to bill.

State Law, Missouri Section 571.107.10:

 Any higher education institution or elementary or secondary school facility without the consent of the governing body of the higher education institution or a school official or the district school board, unless the person with the concealed carry endorsement or permit is a teacher or administrator of an elementary or secondary school who has been designated by his or her school district as a school protection officer and is carrying a firearm in a school within that district, in which case no consent is required.  Possession of a firearm in a vehicle on the premises of any higher education institution or elementary or secondary school facility shall not be a criminal offense so long as the firearm is not removed from the vehicle or brandished while the vehicle is on the premises;

The 2nd Amendment is seen by the Supreme Court as an acknowledgement of an existing right of the individual: District of Columbia v. Heller 12 confirmed what had been a growing consensus of legal scholars—that the rights of the Second Amendment adhered to individuals. The Court reached this conclusion after a textual analysis of the Amendment,13 an examination of the historical use of prefatory phrases in statutes, and a detailed exploration of the 18th century meaning of phrases found in the Amendment. (

The 101st Congressional Bill was passed directly impacting these rights, and had been determined unconstitutional in the case before the Supreme Court, United States v. Lopez, 514 U.S. 549 (, consequently Congress made slight modifications to the law, and it has not been re-tested in the Supreme Court to date with these modifications. To date, the Missouri law has not been tested in State or Federal Supreme Courts.

Questions that defined the scope of our research

  • Have these laws been effective in preventing gun violence in schools?
  • Are there schools or states that have actively promoted the carry of firearms, either concealed or openly carried, and if so, has this policy had an effect on violence in these schools?
  • Are there differences in the responses to violence on these two types of campus?
  • Are there differences in the amount of damage that bad actors have had on these differing campus?
  • Do these effects outweigh the preemption of rights enumerated in the Second Amendment of the Constitution of the United States?
  • How is this issue being treated on Missouri Western’s campus?
  • Can data from non-campus changes in firearm laws be extrapolated to inform on-campus potentialities?
  • Can changes in firearm laws affect more than just gun violence, but extend to affect and increase in other major crimes, such as rape, assault or theft?


We located unbiased source data from government databases, including FBI crime statistics and statistics from the National Institute of Justice. We examined current state level laws regarding campus carry, and attempted to gain knowledge concerning the efficacy of current laws, explored any trends in the data, which led us to a consensus. We then compared and contrasted states and universities that have chosen different approaches to this issue, and this informed our conclusion.

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